Binnabook Magazine: Learn Code


Showing posts with label Learn Code. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Learn Code. Show all posts

Court Declares Sowore's 2019 Arrest Illegal, Awards Damages Against DSS

 Justice Obiora Egwuatu of the Federal High Court in Abuja has declared the arrest and unlawful detention of the human rights activist, Omoyele Sowore on August 3, 2019, by the lawless operatives of the Department of State Services (DSS) as illegal.

The court also ordered the DSS to pay the sum of N1 million and aggravated damages to the activist.

The judge gave the order on Monday while ruling on the fundamental rights suits filed by the activist to challenge his unlawful abduction at a Lagos hotel for asking Nigerians to take to the streets and protest against bad governance, insecurity and corruption.

The activist had on November 15, 2019, filed a suit marked FHC/ABJ/CS/1407/2019 challenging the Director-General of the Department of State Services (DSS), Yusuf Bichi, and Attorney-General of the Federation and Minister of Justice, Abubakar Malami (SAN), for his illegal arrest and detention.

The activist, through his lawyer, Abubakar Marshal, asked the court to declare his unlawful detention by the DSS as "illegal and a gross violation of his fundamental right to liberty”.

He also asked the court for an order compelling the DSS to pay to him the sum of N500,000, 000.00 (Five hundred million naira) as general and aggravated damages for the illegal violation of the applicant’s fundamental right to life, the dignity of his person, fair hearing, health, freedom of movement and freedom of association.

Justice Obiora Egwuatu of the Federal High Court in Abuja has declared the arrest and unlawful detention of the human rights activist, Omoyele Sowore on August 3, 2019, by the lawless operatives of the Department of State Services (DSS) as illegal.

The court also ordered the DSS to pay the sum of N1 million and aggravated damages to the activist.

The judge gave the order on Monday while ruling on the fundamental rights suits filed by the activist to challenge his unlawful abduction at a Lagos hotel for asking Nigerians to take to the streets and protest against bad governance, insecurity and corruption.

The activist had on November 15, 2019, filed a suit marked FHC/ABJ/CS/1407/2019 challenging the Director-General of the Department of State Services (DSS), Yusuf Bichi, and Attorney-General of the Federation and Minister of Justice, Abubakar Malami (SAN), for his illegal arrest and detention.

The activist, through his lawyer, Abubakar Marshal, asked the court to declare his unlawful detention by the DSS as "illegal and a gross violation of his fundamental right to liberty”.

He also asked the court for an order compelling the DSS to pay to him the sum of N500,000, 000.00 (Five hundred million naira) as general and aggravated damages for the illegal violation of the applicant’s fundamental right to life, the dignity of his person, fair hearing, health, freedom of movement and freedom of association.

Nine 9 Ghanaians Smuggle N200m Indian Hemp Into Nigeria

 The Nigeria Security and Civil Defence Corps (NSCDC), Lagos State Command, on Monday, paraded nine Ghanaians for allegedly smuggling about 201 bags of Indian hemp (cannabis sativa) valued at N200m into the country.

The suspects are Musa, Gasie, Adotete, Sottie, Tette, Okonipa, Stephen, Toyokpti and Natte all Ghanaians fishermen.

Parading the suspects at the Command’s headquarters in Ikeja, the state commandant, Edenabu Okoro Eweka, said the suspects were arrested through the support of the Nigerian Navy.

He explained that the intelligence-driven operation was done by the marine unit of NSCDC.

According to him, the items were smuggled through Ghana with the aid of some accomplices.

Narrating how the suspects were arrested, Eweka said: “The suspects loaded the products in a shop with the hope of smuggling them into the country.

“But they didn’t know that our Ghanaian counterpart had informed us and we followed up. From our investigation, the hemp is worth N200m in the market.

“The suspects were traced with two of the 17 boats that were recently donated to us.

“They were apprehended when they ran out of fuel and one of them strolled into the country to get fuel. It was then our officers descended on them.

“Though it was not in the jurisdiction of the agency to delve into drug matters, but the interwoven connectivity between drug addiction and government’s critical infrastructures necessitated the arrest.”

Similarly, the agency also paraded three young men; vandals of armored cables in Ikeja.

The suspects, Rahman, Taiwo and Amon, residents of the area, were said to have been terrorising the state capital for over two years.

COP26 summit in Glasgow- US President Biden Apologises For Trump Exit From Climate Accord

 US President Joe Biden on Monday apologised to world leaders for his predecessor Donald Trump’s withdrawal from a global climate accord and said fighting the crisis should be seen as an economic opportunity.

In a reference to Trump, who withdrew from the Paris climate deal on world action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, Biden told the COP26 summit in Glasgow that he was sorry.

“I guess I shouldn’t apologize but I do apologize for the fact that the United States in the last administration pulled out of the Paris Accords and put us sort of behind the eight ball a little bit,” he said, noting that one of his first actions on taking office this January was to re-enter the accord.

Trump had argued that the Paris accord killed jobs.

But in his main speech to the UN COP26 summit in Glasgow, Biden said that fighting climate change will boost, not hurt economies.

“Within the growing catastrophe I believe there’s an incredible opportunity — not just for the United States, but for all of us,” he said in his speech to the summit.

He promised US leadership and “action, not words.”

“The United States is not only back at the table but hopefully leading by the power of example. I know that hasn’t been the case and that’s why my administration is working overtime,” he said.

Biden pushed back against criticism that reducing greenhouse gases and reliance on fossil fuels will hurt jobs, arguing that “it’s about jobs”.

Electrifying transport, building solar panels, and wind turbine networks “create good, paying union jobs for American workers”.

Continuing down the current path is already causing economic damage, Biden said.

“We’re standing at an inflection point in world history,” Biden said, citing the proliferation of wildfires, droughts and other climate-related disasters.

“Climate change is already ravaging the world,” he said. It’s not hypothetical. It’s destroying people’s lives and livelihoods.

“We have the ability to invest in ourselves and build an equitable, clean-energy future and in the process create millions of good paying jobs and opportunities around the world.

“We meet with the eyes of history upon us,” Biden told the summit in Glasgow, Scotland. “Every day we delay, the cost of inaction increases, so let this be the moment when we answer history’s call, here in Glasgow.

“God bless you all and may God save the planet,” he said in closing.


EndSARS: IGP Orders Investigations Into Suit Challenging Judicial Panels





The Inspector General of Police, IGP M.A Adamu, NPM, mni has directed immediate investigations into a suit purportedly challenging the legality of the States’ Judicial Panel of Inquiry, investigating allegations by citizens against officers of the defunct Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS).

The IGP, who gave the order on the heels of trending reports in the media, today 3rd December, 2020, expressed the disapproval of the Force Management Team on the matter and ordered investigations into the alleged role of the Force Legal Section including its Head. Meanwhile, the Force Legal Officer has been queried and may face further sanctions if found guilty of dereliction of duty.

The IGP reiterates the commitment of the Force to fulfilling all its obligations with regards to the disbandment of the defunct SARS, the ongoing Judicial Panels and all other police reforms.





DisCos Reject Electricity Worth N1.5 Billion

 The 11 power Distribution Companies (DisCos) could not deliver 33,958.16 megawatts hour (MWh) of energy made available for evacuation by the Generation Companies (GenCos) within one month; from September 1, 2020, when the DisCos hiked electricity tariff by over 80 per cent for certain classes of customers.

The cost is estimated at N1.552bn and it would have benefited over 10 million registered power consumers within 31 days.

According to data from Eskom, South Africa’s largest power producer, an MWh can energise 650 homes in an hour.

The 33,958.16MWh of energy rejected by the DisCos within the 31 days could have provided electricity to 22.073 million homes in one hour, or put differently, powered 29,668 households for 31 days.

On September 1, 2020, the DisCos rolled out the Service-Based Tariff (SBT) that averagely increased the tariff by over 60 per cent for consumers and claimed power supply of over 12 hours daily.

Further checks show that the tariff hike was approved and duly approved by the Chairman of the Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission (NERC), Prof. James Momoh.

NERC explained that the tariff implementation was meant to commit the DisCos to improving services, noting that they would not upgrade the consumers under Bands D and E who were assumed to have below 12-hour power supply daily until the services were improved.

Tariff hike yielded no result

Daily Trust recalls that before the tariff hike early September, most of the DisCos had been complaining of high operations’ costs occasioned by poor income from consumers, hence the need for tariff increase to enable them perform optimally.

The DisCos normally buy electricity from GenCos, but if what transpired in September is anything to go buy, the additional income for the DisCos did not significantly impact on their delivery.

The tariff hike was suspended for two weeks from September 28, after several kicks by the organised labour.

On September 29, NERC directed the DisCos to suspend the tariff hike and revert to the previous template of August 31 till October 11, 2020, when it is expected that the organised labour and the Federal Government would have reached a truce to allow them continue with the re-implementation of the tariff hike.

How DisCos failed to supply N1.5bn worth energy to consumers

Analysis of the unutilised energy records obtained from the Independent System Operator (ISO), a section of the Transmission Company of Nigeria (TCN), indicates that from September 3 – a day before the suspension – to September 27, the power firms had already rejected 26,537MWh of energy estimated at N1.213bn; a deprivation to energy consumers.

The GenCos produced 1,575,369MWh (1.575m MWh) energy from which 1,548,832MWh (1.549m MWh) was sent out for delivery.

However, from September 28, 2020, when the 12-day tariff hike suspension came into force, the DisCos rejected another 7,421.6MWh of energy by October 3, 2020 (Saturday). While GenCos generated 494,114.29MWh energy, the 11 DisCos supplied 486,693.13MWh; leaving the 7,421MWh energy undelivered.

That was a loss of N339.1m worth energy that the consumers could have paid for. At least between 79,000MWh to 101,000MWh of energy was generated daily during the period of this analysis.

The total rejected energy worth estimated at N1.552bn within the one month was reached using a computation of residential consumer tariff as produced by the Abuja Electricity Distribution Company (AEDC).

An MWh is equivalent to 1,000 kilowatts hour (KWh). For residential consumers on the Band A who AEDC said they got over 20 hours daily power supply paid N49.75/KWh. While they pay N49,750/MWh, the 33,958MWh rejected by the 11 DisCos translates to N1.689bn.

Residential consumers on the Band B who AEDC said got 16 to 20 hours daily power supply, paid N47.72/KWh. While they pay N47,720/MWh, the 33,958.16MWh rejected by DisCos translates to N1.620bn.

Residential consumers on the Band C who are said to get 12 to 16 hours daily power supply paid N45.69/KWh. For every 1MWh of energy they would get, they pay AEDC about N45,690 per MWh, hence, the 33,958.16MWh that was rejected is worth N1.552bn.

An official at NERC said the fault of load rejection might not be wholly that of the DisCos as transmission losses might account for about eight per cent of the hiccups most times.

The official said, “However, over 90 per cent of this loss resides at the DisCos poor networks and deliberate power rationing techniques.”

Daily Trust reported in August shortly before it approved the tariff increase that NERC had scolded the DisCos for deliberate power outages. According to weekly reports from NERC, the 11 DisCos were cautioned for the deliberate isolation of some 33 kilovolts (kV) feeders to limit energy loads, denying customers of electricity services.

The July monitoring reports also cautioned the DisCos from deliberate refusal to clear faults on their feeders within a stipulated eight hours.

NERC cautioned the DisCos to “stop the deliberate refusal to clear faults on some 33kV feeders within the eight-hour timeline stipulated in the Reporting Compliance Regulation.”

We have capacity to deliver more power – GenCos

While power supply on the national grid has not gone beyond 5,500MW, the Association of Power Generation Companies (APGC) said it had more capacity to deliver to Nigerians if the capacity of the DisCos and that of TCN improved.

The maximum capacity attained by the national grid ever is 5,420MW in August, 2020, but the Executive Secretary of APGC, Dr. Joy Ogaji, explained that the GenCos had current overall average available capacity of 8,589MW and installed capacity of 13,42MW.

Dr. Ogaji said, “If we had a grid capacity that matches our average available capacity, 3,214MW can be made available immediately to Nigerians with the current state of operations of the GenCos and at no additional cost.”

The association said in the first five months of 2020, GenCos had 20,775MW stranded power that was not called for utilisation because the grid could not support the excess power. An official of one of the GenCos said they had never been found wanting in generating electricity which was their core mandate.

He explained that, “What do you do if the electricity is not taken? I am not blaming anyone, but for Nigerians to get value for their money, and for them to agree to tariff hike, all of us in the value chain must make serious investments.”

We’re committed to improving services – DisCos

When approached to explain why they were unable to lift the electricity made available by GenCos, officials of some DisCos were reluctant to speak on the matter.

However, responding to enquiries about worsening power supply situation for certain places in Bands D and E, which are said to have below 12 hours daily power supply, the Abuja DisCo said its ultimate goal was to improve power supply in those areas and move them to higher tariff customers.

The spokesman of AEDC, Oyebode Fadipe, said, “We are always doing our best to improve power supply in these places, but I can tell you as a matter of fact that it will be impossible to stop load shedding given the present situation. It is what we get from the national grid through TCN that we can distribute.”

On his part, the spokesman of Kaduna Electric (KEDCO), Abdulazeez Abdullahi, faulted similar reports about declining situation in power supply across places like Birnin Gwari and parts of Zaria in Kaduna State where the tariffs were frozen.

Abdullahi said, “The new tariff regime is not a blanket increase, but tied to improved hours of power supply and a more efficient service delivery.”

He assured customers that, “Barring circumstances beyond its control, the KEDCO will do its utmost to ensure compliance with the service levels.”

Although the DisCos confirmed they had suspended the tariff hike, the energy rejection has continued. Spokesman of Kano DisCo, Ibrahim Sani Shawai, said the company had suspended the tariff hike until October 11, 2020, and that customers would see the value of the old tariff reflected on their next bills.

Consumer groups fault tariff hike

Commenting on consumers’ dissatisfaction with the tariff increment even though it has been temporarily suspended, the Chairman of the Nigerian Electricity Consumers Advocacy Network (NECAN), Chief Tomi Akingbogun, said, “In seven years of privatisation, we have seen Multi Year Tariff Order (MYTO) summersault with minor adjustments resulting in 120 per cent tariff increase at a go.

“We have seen several unending metering attempts that are always failing, we have seen untested, unscientific, discriminatory billing systems called cost-reflective tariff. We have seen the government approve tariff charges in September, 2020, and not NERC’s 2021. What else can we expect for the people? All thanks to the NERC.”

According to Adetayo Adegbemle, the Executive Director of Power Up, a power consumer advocacy group in Nigeria, the trend has been that NERC continues to increase electricity tariff since 2014 without commensurate improvement in power supply services.

The President of the Nigerian Consumer Protection Network (NCPN), Kunle Olubiyo, told our reporter that the ad hoc committee on tariff review only recommended the increase to the government; believing that relevant authorities would fulfil their promise of holding the DisCos to account by massively providing meters for consumers and rapidly improving their services. NCPN also lamented the failure of the 11 DisCos to provide meters for customers despite various incentives for them.

Daily Trust reports that among the DisCos willing to provide meters on credit to consumers is AEDC. The DisCo said there were provisions for customers to apply for meters and pay in instalments.

Introduction to CSS 1

Image result for css

Hello Buddies today I will be talking about CSS and the basics way CSS is been applied on a website Page.

What is CSS?

CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets ,CSS describes how HTML elements are to be displayed on screen, paper, or in other media; CSS also  saves a lot of work. It can control the layout of multiple web pages all at once and External style sheets are stored in CSS files.

"Stylesheet 1", "Stylesheet 2"   show the different styles here we will show one HTML page displayed with two different style sheets. Below
Original Stylesheet
Stylesheet 1 with css

Stylesheet 2 with CSS

 You can see in the photo above the application of CSS External sheet has changed the display of the webpage CSS is used to define styles for your web pages, including the design, layout and variations in display for different devices and screen sizes.

Problems Solved By CSS

HTML was NEVER intended to contain tags for formatting a web page!

HTML was created to describe the content of a web page, like:

<h1>This is a heading</h1>

<p>This is a paragraph.</p>

When tags like <font>, and color attributes were added to the HTML 3.2 specification, it started a nightmare for web developers. Development of large websites, where fonts and color information were added to every single page, became a long and expensive process.
To solve this problem, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) created CSS.

With an external stylesheet file, you can change the look of an entire website by changing just one file!

You can watch the Video Below for Tutorial


Learn Code.HTML Lesson 3: How to Insert an Image in HTML

As you recall from Lesson 1 (What is HTML?), adding a paragraph in HTML is as simple as wrapping text in <p> and </p> tags. Adding an image, however, is a little more complicated.

Follow Along

Before we continue, I encourage you to follow along by copying and pasting today’s code into your own HTML document  How To Create and Save Your First HTML File by Hand. This will allow you to edit the text, and refresh the file in your web browser as we make edits. This will greatly enhance your learning ability.

How to Insert an Image in HTML

Let’s pretend we have an image of a dog on our computer saved as “funny-dog.jpg” and we want to insert it into a webpage; this is the code we would use:

  1. <img src="funny-dog.jpg">
Let’s analyze this code. First, <img> is the code for creating an image element. Next, the letters “src” are used as an attribute (which you learned about in Lesson 3: Attributes and Values) and stand for “source”. Basically, we need to provide the web browser with a value to the source of the image. 

Naturally, the value for the source attribute is “funny-dog.jpg”. This example assumes your image file is located in the same directory as your HTML file. If, for example, you had your image file inside a folder named “images” your code would look like this:
  1. <img src="images/funny-dog.jpg">

Self Closing Elements

As you can see, in both code examples so far there has not been an ending </img> tag, because the image code is a “self closing” element. This is because unlike a paragraph, we won’t have a plethora of content inside our <img> element, but rather a single image. In fact, HTML5 does not require us to ever “close” our elements, but for organizational reasons I recommend including traditional closing tags for most elements.

There is one additional bit of code we must add before we are finished. We must assign an “alt” attribute and value to our image. The “alt” attribute stands for “alternative” and is used to provide a text-based alternative for viewers incase the image will not load, or if they are visually impaired. Here is what our code will look like:

<img src="funny-dog.jpg" alt="A funny dog sitting on the grass.">

How to Insert an Image in HTML

If you prefer to watch video lessons instead of reading written lessons check out Code academy for self Improvement

Terms In HTML a Developer Should keep In Mind when Creating a HTML File

These are some of the major terms you should be familiar with when creating your html files.

  • The <!DOCTYPE html> declaration should always be the first line of code in your HTML files. This lets the browser know what version of HTML to expect.
  • The <html> element will contain all of your HTML code.
  • Information about the web page, like the title, belongs within the <head> of the page;You can add a title to your web page by using the <title> element, inside of the head.
  • A webpage’s title appears in a browser’s tab.
  • Anchor tags (<a>) are used to link to internal pages, external pages or content on the same page. You can create sections on a webpage and jump to them using <a> tags and adding ids to the elements you wish to jump to.

Whitespace between HTML elements helps make code easier to read while not changing how elements appear in the browser.

Indentation also helps make code easier to read. It makes parent-child relationships visible.
Comments are written in HTML using the following syntax: <!-- comment -->.
If you want to review how to use HTML in a project, watch the video below

Learn HTML Structure Video Tutorial: Episode 2

Image result for html learning

HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language and is used to create the structure and content of a webpage.

Most HTML elements contain opening and closing tags with raw text or other HTML tags between them.

HTML elements can be nested inside other elements. The enclosed element is the child of the enclosing parent element.
Any visible content should be placed within the opening and closing <body> tags.
Headings and sub-headings, <h1> to <h6> tags, are used to enlarge text.

<p>, <span> and <div> tags specify text or blocks.

The <em> and <strong> tags are used to emphasize text.

Line breaks are created with the <br> tag.
Ordered lists (<ol>) are numbered and unordered lists (<ul>) are bulleted.

Images (<img>) and videos (<video>) can be added by linking to an existing source

You can order for a copy of this book to help you learn fast"A Smarter Way to Learn HTML & CSS: Learn it faster. Remember it longer" CHECK HERE
If you want to see how to review how structure HTML in a project and use semantically meaningful elements, watch the video below

Web Design Principles for Developers: CSS Tips to follow for Better Web Design

Related image

It is technically true that anyone can cook. But there’s a difference between actually knowing how to prepare a delicious meal and hoping for the best as you throw a few ingredients in a pot.

Just like web development, you might know the ingredients—<span>, background-color, .heading-1—but not everyone knows how to turn those ingredients into a beautiful, easy-to-use website.

Whenever you use HTML and CSS, you are designing—giving form and structure to content so it can be understood by someone else. People have been designing for centuries and have developed principles along the way that are applicable to digital interfaces today.

These principles manifest in three key areas: how words are displayed (typography), how content is arranged (spacing), and how personalty is added (color). Let’s discover how to use each of these web design ingredients through the mindset of a developer with CSS properties and guidelines to take the guesswork out of web design.

  • Table of Contents

  • Typography

  • Spacing

  • Color


Websites that are easy to read don’t happen by mistake. In fact,We’re going to focus specifically on two fundamental principles of design that can help you display words in a more visually pleasing and easy-to-read way: repetition and hierarchy.

Use repetition for consistency and maintainability

Repetition comes fairly naturally on the web thanks to the importance of reusability in software. For example, CSS classes allow you to define a particular style for text and then reuse that style across the site. This results in repeating, consistent text styles for similar content which helps users navigate the site.

If, for example, you are working on styles for a new paragraph, first consider if there is existing content that has a similar style and try to use the same CSS class. If not, you can create a new class with a generic name that can be repeated elsewhere in your site.

Think .paragraph--emphasize as opposed to .footer__paragraph--emphasize or .heading-1 as opposed to .hero__site-title. The first examples can be used across your site as opposed to the second which are scoped to specific components.

You can even add a prefix like text- to indicate that the class is used specifically for text styles. This method will reduce the CSS file size and complexity while making it much easier to update global styles in the future.


Left: The black text is similar but uses a slightly different font size and line height. Right: The black text uses the same styles and therefore can use the same CSS class. Reducing the amount of CSS needed and adding repetition and consistency.

In design, there are endless ways to experiment with styles. Designers can sometimes go a little crazy with their font styles by creating numerous slight variations of similar styles. However, in code, it’s valuable to restrict text styles to a minimum.

Developers should urge designers to combine similar styles in order to reduce code weight and increase reusability and consistency.

These headings look very similar but are slightly different and would require three separate CSS classes to style them. They could probably be combined into one and styled with a single class
Hierarchy provides a clear visual order to content

Hierarchy is something you really only notice when it’s not there. In typography, hierarchy refers to the visual difference between various pieces of text. It’s the distinction between headings, paragraphs, links, and other text styles.

 This distinction is made by choosing different fonts, colors, size, capitalization, and other properties for each type of text content. Good hierarchy makes complex information easier to digest and guides users through your content.

Left: Poor hierarchy. There’s not much differentiation in the size or color of the text to help users digest the content. Right: Better hierarchy that uses more variety in font size, color, and spacing to help users quickly navigate the content.

Out of the box, HTML provides some hierarchy (like how the font size of headings gets smaller as you go from <h1> to <h6>), but CSS opens the door for even more creativity.

By giving <h1> tags an even larger font size, you can quickly establish greater difference in size between heading levels—and therefore more hierarchy. To create more variety, you can also change the color, text-align, and text-transform properties.

A comparison of the way HTML headings look without styles versus adding more contrast with CSS.
A note on choosing fonts

With typography, we need to make sure it is as easy to read as possible. The greatest overall factor in readability is the font you choose—which is a huge topic.

There are many factors that determine how "readable" a font is. Some fonts are made specifically to be used as headings or short lines of text; these are called "display" fonts, and they often have more personality than fonts designed to be used for text. Unique flourishes and quirks make display fonts harder to read at small sizes and when part of a large paragraph. As a rule of thumb, use a more straightforward font for text and only use display fonts for headings.

Left: Examples of display fonts that work better as headings. Right: Examples of text fonts that are more readable and can be used for headings, paragraphs, and any other text that needs to be easy to read.

If you’re in a pinch and need a readable font, try Google Fonts. Add a paragraph of text to the preview field and size it roughly how it will display on your website. You can then narrow down your results to serif or sans-serif and scan the list of fonts for one that is easy to read. Roboto, Noto Sans, Merriweather, and PT Serif are all very readable options.

CSS properties for better readability

The main paragraph font-size should be between 16pxand 18px (1em and 1.25em) depending on the font you choose.

Manually set line-height (the vertical space between two lines of text) to make your text less cramped and easier to read. Start with line-height: 1.25 (that is 1.25 times the font-size) for headings and at least 1.5 for paragraphs (but no more than 1.9) and adjust from there.

The longer the line of text, the larger the line-height should be. To keep your text flexible, avoid adding a unit to your line-height. Without a unit the line-height you set will be proportional to your font-size. For example, line-height: 1.5 and font-size: 18px would give you a line height of 27 pixels. If you changed your font size to font-size: 16px on smaller screens, the computed line height would then change to 24 pixels automatically.

Left: line-height is 1.1 for the heading and 1.2 for the paragraph, which is roughly the default setting. Right: line-height is 1.25 for the headings and 1.5 for the paragraph.

Pay attention to how many characters are in a line of text and aim for 45 and 75 characters long (including punctuation and spaces).

Doing so reduces reading fatigue for your users by limiting the eye and head movement needed to follow a line of text. With the variable nature of the web, it’s impossible to completely control line length, but you can use max-width values and breakpoints to prevent lines of text from getting too long.

Generally speaking, the shorter the line of text, the faster it will be to scan for quick reading. And don’t worry too much about counting the characters in every line. Once you do it a few times, you’ll develop a sense for what looks right.

Top: line length of around 125 characters. Bottom: line length of around 60 characters.


After looking at typography, you can take a step back and examine the layout, or spacing, of your content. Movement and proximity are two design principles that relate to spacing.

Movement is about content flow

Movement refers to how your eye moves through the page or the flow of the page. You can use movement to direct a user’s eye in order to tell a story, point to a main action item, or encourage them to scroll.

 This is done by structuring the content within individual components and then arranging those components to form the layout of the page. By paying attention to how your eye moves through content, you can help users know where to look as they scan the page.

Unlike books, which tend to have very linear structure, websites can be more creative with their layout—in literally endless ways.

It is important to make sure you are intentional with how you layout content and do so in a way which guides users through your content as easily as possible.

Three potential ways to arrange a heading, image, and button.

Consider these three examples above. Which is the easiest to follow? The arrangement on the left draws your eye off the screen to the left due to how the image is positioned which makes it hard to find the button.

In the center option, it’s easy to skip over the headline because the image is too large in comparison. On the right, the heading draws your attention first and the image is composed so that it points to the main action item—the button.

White space is a helpful tool for creating strong movement, but it’s easy to use too much or too little.

Think about how you are using it to direct the user’s eye and divide your content. When used well, users won’t notice the whitespace itself but will be able to better focus on the content you are presenting. For example, you can use whitespace to separate content (instead of a colored box) which results in a less cluttered layout.

Left: Using a graphic element to separate content and aligning images in the center. Right: Using whitespace to separate content and aligning images on the left to let the whitespace flow better around groups of related content and create a cleaner layout.

Proximity establishes relationships

When objects are closer together, they are perceived as being related. By controlling spacing around elements, you can imply relationships between them.

 It can be helpful to create a system for spacing to help build consistency through repetition and avoid the use of random numbers. This system is based off the default browser font size (1rem or 16px) and uses distinct values that cover most scenarios:

  • 0.25rem (4px)
  • 0.5rem (8px)
  • 1rem (16px)
  • 2rem (32px)
  • 4rem (64px)

You can use Sass or CSS variables so that the values are kept consistent across the project. A system might look like this—but use whatever you’re comfortable with because naming things is hard:

  • $space-sm
  • $space-med
  • $space-lg
  • $space-xl
  • $space-xxl

Left: A component with uneven spacing between elements. Right: A component that uses consistent spacing.

#Color conveys personality and calls attention

Color greatly affects a website’s personality. When used well, it gives pages life and emotion; used poorly, it can distract from the content, or worse, make it inaccessible. Color goes hand in hand with most design principles.

It can be used to create movement by directing users’ eyes and can be used to create emphasis by calling attention to the most important action items.

A note on choosing colors

With color, it can be hard to know where to start. To help, you can use a four-step process to guide your color choices and build a color palette for the site.

Step 1: Know your mood

You have to know the mood or attitude of your site and brand before choosing colors. Look at your content and decide what you are trying to communicate.

Is it funny, informative, retro, loud, somber? Typically, you can boil down the mood of your site to a few adjectives. For example, you might summarize The North Face as adventurous and rugged while Apple would be minimalistic and beautiful.

Step 2: Find your main color

With your mood in mind, try to visualize a color that represents it. Start with the color’s saturation (how intense the color is) and brightness (how close the color is to white or black). If your mood is upbeat or flashy, a lighter (more saturated) color is probably best. If your mood is serious or reserved, a darker (less saturated) color is better.

Next, choose a hue. Hue refers to what most people think of as colors—where does is fall on the rotation of the color wheel? The hue of a color is what gives it the most meaning. People tend to associate hues with certain ideas. For instance, red is often associated with power or danger and green relates to money or nature.

It can be helpful to look at similar websites or brands to see what colors they use—although you don’t need to follow their lead. Don’t be afraid to experiment!

Color wheel showing saturation and brightness versus hue.

Step 3: Add supporting colors

Sometimes, two or three main colors are needed, but this is not necessary. Think about the colors of different brands. Some use a single color, and others have a main color and one or two that support it. Coca-Cola uses its distinct red. IKEA is mostly blue with some yellow. Tide is orange with some blue and yellow. Depending on your site’s mood, you might need a few colors.

Try using a tool like Adobe Color or Coolors), both of which allow you to add a main color and then try different color relationships, like complementary or monochromatic, to quickly see if any work well.

Step 4: Expand your palette

Now that you’ve narrowed things down and found your main color(s), it’s time to expand your scope with a palette that gives your project versatility and constraint—here’s a methodology I’ve found helpful. Tints and shades are the trick here.

 Tints are made by mixing your main color(s) with white, and shades are made by mixing with black. You can quickly create an organized system with Sass color functions:

A palette of color options created with Sass color functions. Make sure to use percent values for the functions that create distinct colors—not too similar to the main color.

To round out your palette, you’ll need a few more colors, like a white and black. Try creating a "rich black" using a dark, almost black shade of your main color and, on the other end of the spectrum, pick a few light grays that are tinted with your main color.

 Tinting the white and black adds a little more personality to your page and helps create a cohesive look and feel.

Top: Basic white, gray, and black. Bottom: Tinted white, grays, and black to match the main color.

Last but not least, if you are working on an interactive product, you should add colors for success, warning, and error states.

Typically a green, yellow, and red work for these but consider how you can adjust the hue to make them fit better with your palette. For example, if your mood is friendly and your base color is green, you might want to desaturate the error state colors to make the red feel less negative.

You can do this with the mix Sass color function by giving it your base color, the default error color, and the percentage of base color that you want to mix in with the error color. Adding desaturate functions helps tone down the colors:

Top: Default colors for success, warning, and error states. Bottom: Tinted and desaturated colors for the success, warning and error states.

When it comes to the web, there’s one color principle that you have to pay extra attention to: contrast. That’s what we’ll cover next.


Color contrast—the difference in saturation, brightness, and hue between two colors—is an important design principle for ensuring the web is accessible to those with low vision or color blindness.

By ensuring there is enough contrast between your text and whatever is behind it on your site will be more accessible for all sighted users.

When looking at accessibility, be sure to follow the color contrast guidelines provided by W3C’s Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG). There are many tools that can help you follow these guidelines, including the inspect panel in Chrome’s dev tools.

By clicking on the color property in the Chrome Inspect tool, you can see the contrast ratio and whether it is passing.

Now, it’s time to put these principles to practice! You can use these processes and CSS tips to help take the guesswork out of design and create better solutions. Start with what you are familiar with, and eventually, the design principles mentioned here will become second nature. LET ME KNOW IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS

Learn HTML Coding.Tech Lovers :Episode 1

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HTML is a vital part of the web as we know it. And while few web designers create pages by manually typing HTML, it’s still handy to know a little bit about it.

 We’re going to look at some basics of the language, including what HTML really is,and  some fundamental concepts.

HTML Basics: What Is HTML?

HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language.

As a markup language, HTML only lets you create the display layout of pages. A true programming language, like Java or C++, contains logic and commands that are carried out.

While it’s simple, HTML is at the backbone of every page on the web. It’s responsible for what text shows up as bold, adding images, and linking to other pages.

You can right-click on most webpages in your browser and choose View page source or similar to see the HTML behind them. This will likely also contain a lot of code that’s not HTML, but you can sift through that.

View HTML Source Example

Step 1: Understanding the Concept of Tags

HTML uses a system of tags to categorize different elements of the document.

Most tags come in pairs to wrap the affected text inside them. Here’s a simple example (the <strong> tag makes text bold; we’ll discuss this more in a moment.)
<strong>This is some bold text</strong>.
Notice how the closing tag starts with a forward slash (/). This signifies a closing tag, which is important. If you don’t close a tag, everything from the start onward will have that attribute.

However, not all tags have a pair. Some HTML elements, called empty elements, have no content and exist on their own. An example is the <br> tag, which is a line break. You can “close” such tags by adding a slash (such as <br />) but it’s not strictly necessary.

Step 2: The Skeleton HTML Layout

A proper HTML document must have certain tags defined so it’s laid out correctly. These are the essential parts:

Every HTML document must begin with <!DOCTYPE html> to declare itself as such. Thus, its closing tag, </html>, is the last item in an HTML file.

Next, the <head>section includes information like the page title, various scripts that run on the page, and similar. As the name suggests, this typically comes right after the initial <html> tag. The end user doesn’t see much of the content in these tags.

Finally, the <body>tag holds the text of the page that the reader sees (plus much more). Here you’ll find images, links, and more.

Since the <body> section makes up the bulk of an HTML document, the rest of our walkthrough looks at elements that pertain to it.

Step 3: Basic HTML Tags for Formatting

Next, let’s look at some common tags that make up HTML documents. Of course, it’s not possible to cover every element, so we’ll review some of the most important. We’ve covered many more HTML examples if these don’t satisfy you.

If these tags seem pretty basic, remember that HTML was created all the way back in 1993. The web was very much text-based back then in its early stages.

Simple Text Formatting

HTML supports basic text styles like you’d find in Microsoft Word:

<strong> tags make text bold.
<em> tags (which stands for “emphasis”) will italicize text.
HTML also supports the older <b> tag for bold and <i> for italics. However, it’s preferable to use the ones above.

In short, <strong> and <em> show how something should be understood, while the latter tags only tell you how it should look. These former tags are more accessible for screen readers used by the visually impaired.

Paragraph and Other Divisions

HTML’s <div> tag lets you define a section of the document. Usually, this is paired with CSS (see below) to format a section in a certain way.

The <p> tag lets you divide text into paragraphs. Browsers will automatically put some space before and after these, letting you naturally break up text.

You can add headers to your document and make it easier to follow using the <h1> through <h6> tags. H1 is the most important header, while H6 is least important. Nearly every MakeUseOf article uses H2 and H3 headers to organize information.

Hitting Enter to add line breaks in your HTML document won’t actually display them. Instead, you can use <br> to add a line break

.Here’s an example that uses all of these:
<div class="example">
<h2>Example Heading</h2>
<p>This is one paragraph.</p>
<p>This is a second<br>paragraph split between two lines.</p>

Step 4: Inserting Images

Images are a vital part of most webpages. You can add them easily with HTML, and even set different properties for them.

You insert an image using the <img> tag. Combining this with the src attribute lets you specify where you want the image to load from.

Another important attribute of <img> tags is alt. Alt text allows you to describe the image for screen readers or in case the image doesn’t load properly. You can mouse over an image to see its alt text.

Use the width and height elements to specify the number of pixels the image appears at.

Put it all together, and an image tag looks like this:

<img src="" alt="Dr. Phil" width="1280" height="720"> 

Step 5: Adding Links

The World Wide Web wouldn’t be much of a web without links to other pages. Using the <a> tag, you can link to other pages on any text.

Inside the <a> tag, the href attribute tells where you’re linking. Simply pasting the URL will work fine. You can use the title element to add a bit of text that appears when someone hovers over the link.

A basic link looks like this:
<a href="" title="Click here to search the web">Visit Google</a>

The <a> tag has many other possible elements, but we won’t dive into them here.

To be Continue next week drop a comment if  you need any Help

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